This is the second in a series on urban heat island issues. To remind the readers from the last post, the IPCC says that urban heat island effects are miniscule. The IPCC says
"Clearly, the urban heat island effect is a real climate change in urban areas, but is not representative of larger areas. Extensive tests have shown that the urban heat island effects are no more than about 0.05°C up to 1990 in the global temperature records used in this chapter to depict climate change. Thus we have assumed an uncertainty of zero in global land-surface air temperature in 1900 due to urbanisation, linearly increasing to 0.06°C (two standard deviations 0.12°C) in 2000.” Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
2.2 How Much is the World Warming?
So, what does that mean? The IPCC is correcting the data downward about 1/20th of a degree. James Hansen in a peer reviewed journal gives a bit more of a correction but it is only three-tenths of a degree.
J. Hansen et al, “A Closer Look at United States and Global Surface Temperatures,”
J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23947-23963
Available here p 6
"The magnitude of the adjustment at the urban and periurban stations themselves, rather than the impact of these adjustments on the total data set, is shown in Plate 2l. The adjustment is about -0.3 [deg] C at the urban stations and -0.1 [deg]C at the periurban stations."
People should know that the Stefan-Boltzmann law says that one can determine the temperature of an object by measuring the radiation spectrum. This is a well known law of physics. The equipment used to make these pictures measures the peak in the spectrum and calculates the temperature the surface had to be to give off that much radiation. The higher the temperature, the shorter is the radiation's wavelength at the peak of the spectrum. Since radiation tries to equilibrate with all radiation surfaces around it, a thermometer in a hot spot will be made much hotter by the surrounding radiation. If you recall in the last post, Phoenix, AZ had their thermometer at the airport which happens to be the very hottest spot in Phoenix. That will affect the temperature the thermometer reads. With that as background, let us once again look at the thermal pictures of cities taken by infrared equipment.
Below is a picture of the urban heat island effect in Budapest Hungary taken in 2005. You can see the surrounding more rural area has a dark blue temperature of 19-22 deg C. The hottest spots in Budapest are greater than 45 deg C, yet the IPCC says that the urban heat island effect is negligible. The thermal imagining shows how silly that claim is. This photo has more than a 25 deg C variation from the country to the city. That is anything but insignificant. The average color of the city is yellow-orange, which means that the city is mostly 35 deg C which means at the very least a 13 deg C rise in temperature.
Below is a thermal picture of Sydney, Australia Feb 6, 2009.
The range of temperature is from 28 to 33 deg F, a 6 deg variation. You can see that the roads are all very hot, which is why weather services say that we should not locate temperature stations on top of cement or asphalt. The cement becomes hot and affects the thermometer. Yet, the genius's at the USHCN have located lots of thermometers on top of cement and they have taken very few steps to correct this lunacy. Below is Paso Robles California.
You can go to Google street view and see this station at the corner of 13th and Paso Robles St. It is at the City Hall, on cement. The above thermal image of Sidney shows how stupid it is to place a thermometer there and then claim that it doesn't affect the thermometer. One can only speculate why scientists behave in this fashion.
Then let's end this installment by looking at Montreal, Canada
The dark blue in the NW part of the covered area is 17 deg C. The purple is 33-45 deg C. This is at least an urban heat island effect of 16 deg C yet, Hansen tells us solemnly that one only needs a 0.3 deg C correction for the urban heat effect. What utter nonsense that is. Everything in the center of Montreal is radiating more than 16 deg C higher than the country side. And many of the hypnotized hysteriacs will continue to believe that the urban heat island is of no significant amount, merely because they are told to believe that. They can't think for themselves in any significant way. And that is sad.